There are 56 species of fish inhabiting Lake Baikal. Their major part consists of the bullhead – the shirokolobka which means wide forehead in Russian. Largely, the bullheads are typical inhabitants of the bottom, occupying all water depths. The fries of this fish is one of the food components of the famous omul fish.
The most interesting fish in Lake Baikal is golomyanka (also known as Baikal oilfish). It is a primary prey of Baikal seal representing the largest fish biomass in the lake. The fish is mysterious in many aspects. The golomyankas, both the big and the small species, live only in Lake Baikal. Their size is not more than 24 cm (9.5 inches), it doesn’t have scale. It is nacreous color and almost transparent while containing up to 35% of medicinal oil rich with vitamin A. The golomyanka is viviparous fish, the only one living in these northern latitudes. It gives birth to 3,000 living fries at a time, and the greatest part of females perish after the child-bearing. This small fish endures pretty well any pressure in the depth of Lake Baikal water. At a depth of 1,000-1,400 m (0.6-0.9 mi) the golomyanka moves freely both horizontally and vertically. The temperature of +5 C (+41 F) is optimal for it. If this fish is brought out from the water on sunshine it simply melts and disappears.
The major marketable fish in Baikal is famous omul fish which is being sold smoked at many local markets all around the lake. It is a whitefish species of salmon family endemic to Lake Baikal in Siberia, Russia. When it comes to tenderness of meat the omul knows no rivals. In fall during the sprawling season it moves into several rivers. For different reasons a greater part of the caviar perishes. At fishery plants on Baikal over 80% of larvae survive from caviar.
Besides omul there is the Baikal grayling and sig which also have a great commercial value. But a very important place in Lake Baikal is taken by sturgeon. It inhabits the areas of the Baikal tributaries. There are also perches, daces, ides, crucians, roaches, eel-pouts, and other fish.